Convolution reverb can digitally simulate the sounding of actual devices. It is based on pre-recorded audio samples of the impulse response. Application AltiSpace - Convolution Reverb for iPad and iPhone has a large built-in library of the highest quality reverb impulses taken from these devices.
AKG ADR 68k
In 1986 acquisition of Boston based Ursa Major was transformed into the Digital Products Division of AKG Acoustics. The first product by the new Division is the ADR 68K.
Recording Engineer/Producer magazine. March 1989.
AKG's ADR 68K is the signal processing device that does it all.
SAMPLING. 16 bit stereo or mono multi-sampling (up to 32 seconds) with pitch shift, adjustable attack and decay, flexible output mixing, up to 12 simultaneous voices, support for MIDI sample dumps, triggering by audio input, MIDI or foot pedals.
MIDI. Program changes, freely mappable parameter changes, total automation in conjunction with sequencers, real time changes of programs and parameters without glitching or muting, preset register storage and retrieval.
EFFECTS. Seven split programs, many allowing chained or split operation, 40 bit internal DSP processing for high accuracy and low noise, input level or foot pedal can control any effect parameter, Multi Effects Chain with eight simultaneous effects, stereo processing, chorusing, auto panning.
... AND ONE MORE THING. THE ADR 68K IS ALSO A WORLD CLASS REVERB! With smooth, natural reverb programs, easy to use factory presets, more than 40 adjustable parameters, integrated sampling, and versatile reverb gates.
SYSTEM. People-sized remote with six faders, a large 160 character LCD for easy operation, over 10,000 words of built-in context sensitive help, upgradeable software. And more. And more. And... well, we've made our point. The ADR 68K sounds like it does a lot, because it does and it sounds great doing it.
In 1981 AMS introduces the world's first full bandwidth digital reverberator, the RMX16. An instant classic, the RMX 16 would become a firm favourite among producers and engineers the world over. One famous user was Phil Collins who recorded "In the Air Tonight". The unique drum sound was the result of the RMX16.
System Overview (from User Manual)
With digital reverberation one can simulate mathematically any real environment and also any old fashioned artificial reverberant character such as plates, or springs. Digital reverberation techniques are the first to offer such sophistication.
The RMX 16 digital reverberation system employs sophisticated micro-programmed parallel processing of 16 bit data offering an 18kHz bandwidth; 90dB dynamic range and 0.03% distortion in delay mode; low power consumption (and therefore cool running); independent control of each programs fundamental reverberant parameters; alphanumeric program descriptions for ease of use and "at a glance" understanding of how the unit is currently programmed as all data, including the variables (pre-delay, decay time, high frequency decay profile and low frequency decay profile), are continuously displayed on the reverb front panel.
The systems are designed to be simple to operate with nine factory programs simulating different reverberant environments with the ability to control all parameters. Nine use definable settings may be stored within the mainframe and a further ninety within the remove terminal. The user definable settings may be as complex as required. All reverberation parameters whether factory preset programs or user definable settings, are stored in non-volatile RAM and remain intact on power down.
The nine standard programs are stored in Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM) and can only be altered by physical replacement of these devices. However, additional program storage (Softprogs 10 to 12 on the Mainframe and Softprogs 31 to 33 on the Remote Terminal) is available in the Random Access Memory (RAM) area which can be re-programmed with the use of the Remote Terminal and Bar Code Wand combined option.
Digital Reverberation Unit EMT 244
Released in 1979
Overview (from User Manual)
Functions and application
This unit is a simplified version of the well known EMT 250 Electronic Reverberation Unit. It utilizes the same programming principles but was designed for applications where size and space are of critical importance, e.g. as remote recording vehicles, stage work, or entertainment halls. Wherever space is limited, but special acoustic effects are required, the EMT 244 will prove an excellent choice.
Reverberation time is selectable in 16 steps from 0.4s to 4.5s. A two position switch changes the response curve of the high and low frequencies. Low frequency response may be flat or boosted and high frequency response may be flat or rolled off.
Electronics and circuitry
All the analog and digital electronics are located on a single large Printed Circuit Board. The input signal is fed to a newly developed, hybrid A/D converter where a digital word of 13 bits is produced. This digital signal is fed to the CPU which uses both discrete and LSI components. Its Random-Access-Memory has a capacity of 85 kbits. The stored program which controls the reverberation processor consists of Read-Only-Memories (ROM). Following the processor is a time shared digital/analog converter with two outputs (stereo).
All inputs and outputs are symmetrically balanced above ground. Unbalanced lines may also be used with a simple modificaiion.
The reverberation time can by changed remotely by using an 8 or 16 position switch connected via a 4 or 5 conductor cable. A special interface board makes it possible to remotely operate the unit with the EMT 140 or EMT 240 remote controls.
Reverberation Unit EMT 140
German company EMT (Elektromesstecknik) made a huge breakthrough in 1957 with the release of the EMT 140 Reverberation Unit - the first plate reverb.
Overview (from User Manual)
The EMT 140 Reverberation Unit is the standard device used throughout the entire world.
The new improved version of the EMT 140, equipped with solid state electronics carries the designation EMT 140 TS and with built-in remote control EMT 140 FB-TS. Besides its ability to acoustically reproduce rooms of various sizes, it is also able to increase the apparent distance between sound source and microphone, For this reason it is possible to use the Reverberation Unit with maximum success in any of the following situations:
- For recording of popular dance music and jazz in which a vocalist or individual sections are to be recorded with an echo quality.
- To improve on the special effect in symphonic or church music, especially when it is written for performance in large halls but must, of necessity, be recorded in absorptive rooms.
- For adding echo to stereophonic music. For this purpose a stereo reverberation unit was constructed and ls available under the designation EMT 140 TS. Its use provides additional accentuation of the stereophonic effect by emphasizing the three-dimensional characteristics of the recording room.
The EMT 140 TS Reverberation Unit utilizes the physical torsional properties of metals to achieve its effect: it is a fact that a steel sheet which has been excited by an impulse setting up within it bending oscillations, will deliver reflections which increase in density as a function of time. Reflections in a three-dimensional room, on the other hand, become more dense as a function of the square of the time. The human ear is unable to recognize the difference between these two operating modes.
Its main component is a steel plate which is suspended in a tubular steel frame. Parallel to this plate, another made of highly porous material is suspended in such a way as to permit it to be swung towards or away from the steel plate with an extreme distance ratio of about 1:30. This motion is controlled by means of a hand wheel, or it may be remote-controlled from the studio console itself and the particular reverberation time remotely indicated by an appropriate meter.
Released in 1986
The Eventide H3000 Ultra-Harmonizer has found its way into almost every professional studio in the world. It's range of effects and upgradable presets and algorithms have allowed the H3000 to enjoy a long successful life. The H3000 was the first signal-processing unit to do “intelligent” diatonic pitch shifting.
The H3000 is used in both the tracking and mixing processes in the studio for its amazing chorus and distinctive reverb effects, as well as the extremely useful micro-pitch shifting effects which create wide and expansive backing vocal and rhythm guitar tracks in a mix. It is also regarded as the ultimate live guitar FX box. It was used by the Edge, Eddie Van Halen, Steve Vai and many others.
The H3000DSE has 21 algorithms with 600 standard presets, including the presets from the H3000DSX. The H3000 offers a variety of effects, including true stereo pitch shift, pitch-correcting diatonic pitch shift, linear-predictive vocoder, six voice polyphonic synth, and a 19 waveform LFO function generator with full control via a comprehensive MIDI implementation. The multi-shift algorithm allows pitch shifting over a six octave range great for mangling and processing audio. Reverse and layered pitch shift are also available. Also available are instant phaser, multi-band delays, swept comb filter, and ultra-tap delay. The built-in waveform function generator operates like a synthesizer's LFO - its 19 periodic or triggered waveforms plus pink and white noise are assignable to most all parameters of the effects program.
Editing the effects programs is fairly straight forward, and greatly assisted by the well thought out user interface. The front panel features a large green backlit 80 character LCD display with four soft buttons. Parameters can be edited with the data entry knob, up/down buttons, the numeric keypad, or via MIDI. Dual ten segment bar graph meters aid in setting input levels.
Released in 1985
Overview (from Operators Manual)
A number of factory-set acoustic simulations based on four reverb types are available via the keypad. These Factory-set memory locations can then be used in their own right as a reference point from which to create your own variations allowing you to let your creativity reign.
Fifty non-volatile memories are available for entering user variations and the sequence function allows instant recall of up to 16 factory or user memories in required order, allowing rapid movements through a series of previously planned acoustical settings for mix-down, film dubbing, T.V. production or live performance.
The remote control unit allows the chosen acoustic setting to be first selected, using the sequence key and then modified using the parameter sliders.
In 1986, Lexicon released the 480L (costing more than some cars), a successor of the 224XL model.
Introduction (from Owners Manual)
The 480L doesn't just sound bettersheer computational power allows it to perform multiple audio tasks at the same time. And what tasks! In the current glut of throwaway digital devices with ever-cheaper versions of the same sounds, the 480L offers remarkable new effects and reverb sounds.
Its innovative reverb algorithms reflect a more accurate and natural model of the acoustic and psychoacoustic phenomena of reverb and ambience. Put the 480L up against any other reverberator - you'll be amazed at the difference.
Reverb is only part of the story. The 480L produces astonishing effects you haven't even begun to dream about yet. And its sampling programs offer a variety of useful and unique features. The present software is powerful and comprehensive, a dramatic step forward in digital signal processing technology. Yet it hasn't explored the limit of the 480L's architecture, which is itself configured for future hardware expansion.
Introduction (from Owners Manual)
Analog and Digital Audio Interfacing
For both analog and digital use the 300 takes full advantage of recent advances in converter technology and combines them with flexible digital interfacing. The A/D and D/A converters use oversampling techniques to minimize low-level distortion and provide linear phase characteristics. 64x oversampling Delta/Sigma conversion is used in the A/Ds; 8x oversampling is used in the D/As. The result is sonic transparency without the artifacts normally encountered in conversion.
Dual DSP Architechture
The 300 utilizes two proprietary high performance DSP engines. The configuration of these engines can be determined by the end-user to suit a particular audio application. The Single Setup configuration unites both DSP engines. Two "split" configurations: Dual Mono and Cascade, allow each DSP engine to run a special program especially designed for "Split" applications. The Single algorithms include: Random Hall, Random Ambience, Rich Plate, Stereo Pitch Shift, and Stereo Adjust. The "split" algorithms include: Dual Delays, Chamber, Mono Pitch Shift, Compressor, a special mastering dither program called PONS (Psychoacoustically Optimized Noise Shaping), and a small version of Stereo Adjust.
Even with the best functions and features, the heart of any signal processor is its sound. The 300 contains the very best of the Lexicon Sound - with new refinements such as dynamic size parameters in the Reverb and Ambience algorithms. We have also included stereo and mono pitch shifting, delay effects, a mastering algorithm with precision level/balance controls and equalization. These sounds, combined with analog and digital audio I/O, time code based effect change, an internal LFO, and full MIDI automation result in a system that provides new creative options each time you use it. We're confident you'll find that the 300's combination of state-of-the-art sound and extraordinary versatility is exactly what you're looking for - to make sure you don't miss out on anything, we'd like you to read this manual. It provides a thorough explanation of both front panel and MIDI operation, digital and analog interfacing, descriptions of the effects and presets, and complete MIDI Implementation data - all the information you need to access the full power of the 300.
Introduced in 1978
The Lexicon 224 is an early digital reverb that was well known for its spacey, extra long decays. Again, Vangelis was an early pioneer of the extra long decays using this unit, most famously in the Blade Runner soundtrack.
The reverb was conceived when Dr. David Griesinger, a nuclear physicist/musician/classical recording engineer, started working on a digital solution to reverb. Seeing EMT's 250 encouraged him to merge a microcomputer with his reverb design. He pitched his rough prototype to Lexicon, which bought the invention and brought Griesinger on board to help refine the product. One of Griesinger's concepts for the new reverb was creating a separate control unit for parameter adjustment and program access.
The 224 reverberation system had a console-top controller with a four-rackspace brain, two inputs, four outputs and interchangeable programs to simulate chambers, plates and rooms. The 224 was “affordable” - meaning $7,500 with two programs or $7,900 with four programs. But at half the price of EMT's 250, the 224 was a hit. Eventually, the 224 evolved into the improved 224X and 224XL, which included the LARC (Lexicon Alphanumeric Remote Control), offering fingertip access to programs and parameters, dedicated function keys and a 24-character LED.
The Lexicon 224 used a fixed point processor, with a 16-bit word size. It was designed in the late 1970s using the best technology available, which at the time was the 8080 microprocessor, 12-bit converters (using DAC80 DAC IC), input transformers, and bucketloads of 74S/LS-series logic. Although the converters themselves are 12-bit, a clever scaling circuit gives an extra 24dB of headroom by actively shifting the input gain. This gives a 16-bit conversion range overall, though precision is still only 12-bit.
Lexicon PCM 70
Released in 1985
The Lexicon PCM 70 offers more than 40 digital effects and reverb programs, including chorus and echo, resonant chords, multiband delays, rich chamber, rich plate, and concert hall. Add to these the 50 programs you can create and store in user registers, and you have instant access to more than 90 programs.
If creative control is what you are after, more than 70 different parameter types can be edited to produce just the sound you need. Everything from delay times to feedback, filters, panning, and early reflections.
Great sounds are only half the story. The Lexicon PCM 70 introduces revolutionary MIDI capabilities that will change forever the way the world uses effects. Lexicon's Dynamic MIDI gives you real-time remote control over up to ten different parameters at the same time from a MIDI keyboard or sequencer.
You can patch any effects or reverb parameter to any variable MIDI controller on your synthesizer modulation wheel, pitch wheel, data entry slider, sustain switch, and others. You can also patch parameters to vary with MIDI events like key velocity, pressure, or aftertouch.
These features give the Lexicon PCM 70 capabilities far beyond any other effects processor available.
Lexicon PCM 60
Released in 1984
Overview (from Owners Manual)
The unit is a dead-simple bare bones affair, with only two main programs: Plate and Room. For either program, there are two banks of four additional shaping settings: one for decay time, from short to long, and another set for effect size, from small to large, which also affects perceived reverb time. The only other sonic shaping available are two "Contour" filters, one for bass and the other for treble.
The PCM-60's controls are easy to use, offering flexible operation and a logical layout. Front panel LEDs light to indicate selected functions, and a five-segment headroom indicator has been included for precise input level monitoring.
Released in 1989
Overview (from Owner's Manual)
The R-880 is a multi-mode device, providing a wide variety of effects in an almost unlimited range of configurations. The processing modules, reverb, early reflections, gates, delays, chorus, equalizers, and compressors - exist purely in software, and so can be configured in any imaginable order or combination.
Signals from the two input channels can be processed independently, and their paths split and combined through any modules on their way to the fourindependent outputs. Because there is no analog/digital conversion between the modules, there is never any degradation of the sound quality no matter how many modules are in use or how complex the signal paths are.
The Roland R-880 Digital Reverb is a 19" rack-mount (2 Units high) device. The GC-8 Graphic Controller is designed to sit on a table or desk top. The two units are connected by a single cable, with connectors that resemble MIDI connectors, but that have six pins and lock when inserted into the appropriate jacks. The R-880 and the GC-8 are mutually dependent on each other: each does very little without the other. The R-880 serves as the "mainframe" of the system, while the GC-8 is the "control panel".
The Roland GC-8's LCD display is designed to make the task of arranging the modules and signal paths, as well as configuring the modules themselves, simple and intuitive, using a "desktop" "metaphor that will be familiar to users of modern personal computers. It uses graphics to show the processing algorithms from the most direct to the most complex, and to show all of the parameters of an individual module simultaneously. Menus are used by the software to move around the operating system.
Released in 1987
Overview (from Owner's Manual)
The DEP-3 adopts the l6 bit linear A/D/A conversion system and 28 bit internal arithmatic digital signal processor, allowing dynamic range of 86 dB and total harmonic distortion of under 0.08%.
The digital reverb section includes three different types of ambient environments: Room, Hall and Plate. There are three Rooms and Halls of different reverb sizes and densities, and two types of Plates. Gated reverb can be obtained using non-linear mode, and delay effect can be obtained using Delay mode.
A three band equalizer is built in.
Up to 99 different effect settings can be written into memory.
Since the DEP-3 is equipped with MIDI, other MIDI devices can remotely select the different effect programs through MIDI Program Change messages.
Released in 1984
One popular piece of rack gear from the 80's, a state of the art studio reverb that stood the test of time
Thorough analysis of actual reverberated sounds in numerous acoustic environments allowed Roland to determine the kinds of parameters necessary for a digital reverb to effectively simulate an acoustic environment. The SRV-2000 features all such parameters and cna thus simulate all acoustic environments of any shape, any size, and any building material, from small rooms to big halls, churches, even tunnels!
The SRV-2000 incorporates a 16-bit A/D/A converter which converts analog signals into digital signals. The core of the SRV-2000 is a 28-bit, parallel-operation signal processor which serves as the arithmetic-operation circuit. All analog circuits feature discrete construction to reproduce digital reverb sounds without losing clarity or subtlety. The SRV-2000 offers an S/N ratio of 80 dB, a frequency response between 30 Hz and 10 kHz, a dynamic range of 90 dB, and a THD of 0.03%.
Its flexible, versatile performance, and excellent sound quality completely satisfy even the most demanding professional needs.
TC Electronic M5000
M5000 Digital AudioMainframe (from User Manual)
The M5000 Digital Audio Mainframe is unlike any other effects processor you have ever seen. By combining TC DARC™ technology with the skills of the best signal processing software engineers around the world, we have created the perfect mix of effects you have access to in the M5000 today.
What you see is not what you get - you get more! The unique design of the M5000 hardware platform allows for future upgrading of both the software and hardware aspects. It will far outlast any other signal processor you own or can buy today.
Operating the M5000 is a breeze and upgrading it couldn't be simpler. All M5000 owners receive regular, easy to install, software upgrades -featuring the very latest state-of-the-art effects. Add to this hardware upgrades like the impressive ATAC Remote Controller and you have a package that is unbeatable.
To some it may look like any other effects processor - but you know better.
Why a Mainframe?
The purpose of the mainframe concept is the flexibility to keep up with the ever evolving state of technology. New inventions developed because of the advancing needs of professional engineers can be implemented in the mainframe without he need to scrap a valued piece of equipment. Furthermore, only one user interface is needed to control several modules, i.e. the front panel of the ATAC is controlling one module at the time, although all modules installed are active.
Released in 1993
Extraordinary Professional Multi Effect Processor with 20-bit Sound
Epoch-making new effect like the main effect programs include multi-tap delay which can determine each level of time and balance, the round pan and intelligent pitch which can add harmony through internal recording on specific keys and scale. The temp, stereo echo and temp, quad echo also add new attractive effects to the Yamaha SPX990.
In addition to the basic effect and EQ parameters, the Yamaha SPX990 offers a list of “internal parameters” which provide exacting control over the effect sound. The Yamaha SPX990 is also MIDI compatible, with a MIDI IN terminal that allows MIDI selection of effect programs and a switchable MIDI THRU/OUT terminal. When switched to OUT, edited programs stored in the internal RAM can be dumped to a MIDI data recorder or other data storage devices. Programs thus stored can be reloaded when necessary via the MIDI IN terminal.
Released in 1985
Overview (from Product Manual)
30 impressive factory presets are permanently stored in the REV7 ROM (read only memory). Presets cover a broad range of effects various size halls, simulations of mechanical reverb devices, simulations of recording studio type acoustic environments, stereo delays, and a range of modulation type effects. Presets are carefully programmed to provide the ideal effect in a broad range of applications, but if you need a "special" effect, it is simple to program your own.
This highly advanced unit offers superb performance in any situation where professional quality reverberation is required: concerts, recording studios, and broadcasting, and will satisfy the highest demands of the contemporary musician and sound engineer. The Yamaha REV7 Professional Digital Reverberator, designed according to Yamaha's philosophy of making up-to-the-minute advances in computer technology available to you, the discerning user. Mike Oldfield used a REV7 in album "Amarok".
Released in 1985
Overview (from Operating Manual)
The SPX90 Digital Multi-Effect Processor utilizes highly refined LSI (Large Scale Integration) technology to create natural reverberation. Not only is its assortment of 30 preset effects comprehensive enough to suit most studio and performance applications, the SPX90 also allows you to create up to 60 additional effects and store them for instant recall.
Your SPX90 can create effects far beyond mere reverberation, though that in itself is of a truly superior quality. A variety of echo, delay, and special effects - each with comprehensive parameter adjustments - can be accessed at the touch of a switch. And as the SPX90 is MIDI-compatible, it can be programmed to apply separate reverberation effects to a variety of MIDI-compatible instruments.
Your SPX90 Digital Multi-Effect Processor will prove extremely useful in a variety of applications: acoustic electric, PA, MIDI instrument, and home recording systems. In order to take advantage of the vast potential of this component, we urge you to study this manual before connecting the SPX90 to your system. We at Yamaha thank you, and wish you years of enjoyment with your SPX90.